Elizabeth Van Lew (1818-1900)
Elizabeth Van Lew (1818-1900), also known as "Crazy Bet," was an American spy during the Civil War who spied for the Union from her home in Richmond, Virginia. Born in 1818 in Richmond, Van Lew's father ran a hardware business and owned several slaves. Van Lew was educated at a Quaker school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where she was first exposed to abolitionism. After the death of her father, Van Lew and her mother freed the family's eleven even though her father said they couldn't, the slaves included Mary Bowser. Then they bought and freed some of their relatives. Upon the outbreak of the war, Van Lew began working on behalf of the Union. When Libby Prison was opened in Richmond, Van Lew was allowed to bring food, clothing, writing paper, and other things to the Union soldiers imprisoned there. She aided prisoners in escape attempts, passing them information about safe houses and getting a Union sympathizer appointed to the prison. Prisoners gave Van Lew information on Confederate troop levels and movements, which she was able to pass on to Union commanders. Van Lew also operated a spy ring of 12 people during the war, including clerks in the war and navy departments of the Confederacy and a Richmond mayoral candidate. Van Lew was able to have Bowser hired by Varina Davis, which allowed Bowser to spy in the White House of the Confederacy. To aid in her spying, Van Lew adopted the appearance of a crazy person, letting her hair grow wild and talking to herself in public. Van Lew's spy network was so efficient that on several occasions she sent Ulysses S. Grant fresh flowers from her garden and a copy of the Richmond newspaper. She developed a cipher system and often smuggled messages out of Richmond in hollow eggs. Van Lew's work was valued by the United States. George H. Sharpe, intelligence officer for the Army of the Potomac, credited her with "the greater portion of our intelligence in 1864-65." On Grant's first visit to Richmond after the war, he took tea with Van Lew, and later appointed her postmaster of Richmond. Grant said of her "You have sent me the most valuable information received from Richmond during the war." After Reconstruction, Van Lew became increasingly ostracized in Richmond. She persuaded the United States Department of War to give her all of her records, so she could hide the true extent of her espionage from her neighbors. Having spent her family's fortune on intelligence activities during the war, she tried in vain to be reimbursed by the federal government. Van Lew died on September 25, 1900, and was buried in Richmond.
Materials in the Special Collections Research Center
- Elizabeth Van Lew in SCRC Database
- Lydia H. Hart Diary (neighbor of Van Lew) in SCRC Digital Archive
- Elizabeth Van Lew : southern belle, Union spy, by Karen Zeinert in SCRC Rare Books
- A Yankee spy in Richmond : the Civil War diary of "Crazy Bet" Van Lew, edited by David D. Ryan. in SCRC Rare Books
External Links/Further Reading
Who Buried Elizabeth Van Lew?, article National Institute of American History & Democracy journals, accessed December 12, 2018.
To search for further material, visit the Special Collections Research Center's Search Tool List for an overview of the Special Collections Database, W&M Digital Archive, Flat Hat-William & Mary News-Alumni Gazette index, card catalogs, and other tools available to help you find material of interest in William & Mary Libraries Special Collections Research Center.
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